Dẫn nhập ngữ âm - Âm vị học

Dẫn nhập ngữ âm – Âm vị học: Tài liệu – Giáo trình – Bài tập lớn – Đề thi

Dẫn nhập Ngữ âm và Âm vị học tiếng Anh – Introduction to English Phonetics and Phonology

Học phần này cung cấp cho người học kiến thức và khái niệm cơ bản về ngữ âm và âm vị học để nắm được các đặc trưng miêu tả về các lớp âm và các khả năng kết hợp của các thành viên của lớp âm cùng các biến thể theo các qui luật âm vị học trong cấu trúc âm tiết cũng như ở bậc đơn vị siêu đoạn tính khác. Cuối học phần, người học sẽ có thể hiểu được bản chất cấu âm của các âm cùng sự tương tác của các bộ phận cấu âm trong quá trình tạo âm, đặc trưng âm học của các âm; các khả năng phân bố và khả năng kết hợp của các âm trong cấu trúc âm tiết; và các biến thể phát âm của âm.

Giáo trình Phonetics & Phonology
Assignment 001 – Khoa tiếng Anh
Asignment 002 – Khoa tiếng Anh
Đề thi kết thúc học phần Khoa Anh chuyên ngành 101
Đề thi kết thúc học phần Khoa Anh chuyên ngành 102

TỔNG HỢP TẤT-TẦN-TẬT: TÀI LIỆU PHONETICS & PHONOLOGY

BÀI TẬP LỚN KẾT THÚC HP HKIIMã đề 001-CLC

Phonetics and Phonology Assignment
Phonetics and Phonology Assignment

1. Airstream Mechanism

Fill in the blanks in the following passage with the words provided (some words may be used more than once):

voiced   clicks    ejectives   velaric  voiceless   glottalic   pulmonic   plosives   implosives

There are three principle airstream mechanisms: the ____________ airstream mechanism, the ____________ airstream mechanism, and the ____________ airstream mechanism. In normal utterances in all the languages of the world, the airstream is always flowing outward if the _______________ airstream mechanism is involved. Stops made with this mechanism are called ______________. The only mechanism that is used in some languages to produce some sounds with inward going air and some sounds with outward going air is the _____________ airstream mechanism. Stops made with this mechanism acting ingressively are called ____________. Stops made with this mechanism acting egressively are called ______________. The mechanism that is used in language to produce sounds only with inward going air is the __________ airstream mechanism. Stops made with this mechanism are called _____________. Stops may vary in their voice onset time. In this respect, [b,d,g] are _____________ stops, [p,t,k] are ________stops.

2. Phonetic description

Give the appropriate phonetic symbol in brackets for each of the sounds described below:

a) voiceless velar stop [ ]

b) voiced labiodental fricative [ ]

c) voiced palato-alveolar affricate [ ]

d) voiced palatal glide [ ]

e) voiced velar nasal [ ]

f) voiceless interdental fricative [ ]

3. Phonetic description

Work out the vowel sound associated with each of the following descriptions. Supply its correct phonetic symbol and illustrate the vowel with a word in English. One example has been done for you.

a) long (tense) high front unrounded [  ] heat

b) short low central unrounded [   ] _____

c) short high back rounded [    ] _____

d) long mid-high back rounded [    ] _____

e) long mid central (slightly) rounded [     ] _____

4.  Assimilation

Provide two phonetic transcriptions for each of the following examples, one which reflects the way you would say it in formal or careful speech style, the other the way you would say it in more rapid, casual speech style. Identify the assimilation process that occurs in the sound sequence.

1.                                                         Would you like it

Careful style:

Casual style:

Assimilation process:

2.                                                         A basket maker

Careful style

Casual style

Assimilation process:

3.                                                         A good cook

Careful style:

Casual style:

Assimilation process:

5. Stress

Stress in a sentence is used to emphasize important information in a sentence, usually Noun, Verb, Adjective & Adverb.

Look at the underlined word that receives the stress in each sentence, and tell what the speaker means. One example has been done for you. 

Word stressed in sentenceWhat the speaker means
1. I asked you to buy red roses.E.g. It was me who was asking – not him or her
2. I asked you to buy red roses.
3. I asked you to buy red roses.
4. I asked you to buy red roses.
5. I asked you to buy red roses.
6. I asked you to buy red roses.

6.  Choose either Question A or Question B. Do NOT do both.

Question A

Consider the distribution of [r] and [l] in Korean in the following words:

[rupi]       ‘ruby’             [mul]               ‘water’

[kiri]      ‘road’              [pal]                ‘big’

[saram]   ‘person’          [soul]/[seul]    ‘Seoul’

[irumi]   ‘name              [ilkop]             ‘seven’

[ratio]     ‘radio’             [ipalsa]                        ‘barber’

Are [r] and [l] two different phonemes or are they allophones of the same phoneme? State your reasons.

Question B

Consider the distribution of [p] and [pʰ] in the following words. Are they two different phonemes or are they allophones of the same phoneme? State your reasons.

spat [sp&t]                  pat [pʰ&t]                    lap [l&p]

spool [spu:l]               pool [pʰu:l]                 stop [stQp]

speak [spi:k]               peak [pʰi:k]                 steep [sti:p]

7. Analyze the syllable structure of the words: spring, little, doctor, structure.

WordNumber of syllablesFirst syllableSecond syllable
  OnsetRhymeOnsetRhyme
   NucleusCoda Nucleuscoda
spring       
little       
doctor       
structure       

8. Why do the rules for marking stress and intonation keep changing? Don’t we have any fixed rules?

Dẫn nhập ngữ âm – Âm vị học kết thúc học phần – Đề 002 – Đại trà

Phonetics and Phonology Assignment
Phonetics and Phonology Assignment

Note: You may need to use these symbols for your assignment completion.

U V 3: O: Q @ A: I i: & Í Ù T D S Z N

1. Human speech organs

In the spaces provided, fill in the names of the human speech organs numbered in the diagram.

1. ____________________
2. ____________________
3. ____________________
4. ____________________
5. ____________________
6. ____________________
7. ____________________
8. ____________________
9. ____________________
10. ___________________
11. ___________________
12. ___________________
13. ___________________
14. ___________________
Human Speech Organs
Human Speech Organs

2. Description of consonants

Give the IPA symbol corresponding to the consonants underlined in the following words and provide the appropriate description for them. The first two have been done for you.

                        IPA                  Voiced or        Place of               Manner of

                        symbol            voiceless          articulation          articulation

————————————————————————————————————

Peter               /p/                  voiceless            bilabial                      stop

oven                /n/                   voiced                         alveolar                       nasal

singing

this                 

chew               

hall                 

haggis                        

funny              

hedge             

rough             

fines               

behind                        

seizure

3. Phonetic description

Work out the vowel sound associated with each of the following descriptions. Supply its correct phonetic symbol and illustrate the vowel with a word from English.

a) long (tense) high front unrounded [  ] heat

b) short low central unrounded [   ] _____

c) short high back rounded [    ] _____

d) long mid-high back rounded [    ] _____

e) long mid central (slightly) rounded [     ] _____

4.  Assimilation

Provide two phonetic transcriptions for each of the following examples, one which reflects the way you would say it in formal or careful speech style, the other the way you would say it in more rapid, casual speech style. Identify the assimilation process that occurs in the sound sequence.

1.                                                         last year

Careful style:

Casual style:

Assimilation process:

2.                                                         red carpet

Careful style:

Casual style:

Assimilation process:

3.                                                         the green belt

Careful style:

Casual style:

Assimilation process:

5. Stress

 Stress in a sentence is used to emphasize important information in a sentence, usually Noun, Verb, Adjective & Adverb.

Look at the underlined word that receives the stress in each sentence, and tell what the speaker means. One example has been done for you. 

Word stressed in sentenceWhat the speaker means
1. Sophie adored her gorgeous new motorbike. e.g. It was Sophie – not Delia or Nigella or anybody else
2. Sophie adored her gorgeous new motorbike. 
3. Sophie adored her gorgeous new motorbike. 
4. Sophie adored her gorgeous new motorbike. 
5. Sophie adored her gorgeous new motorbike. 
6. Sophie adored her gorgeous new motorbike. 

6.  Choose either Question A or Question B. Do NOT do both.

Question A

Consider the distribution of [r] and [l] in Korean in the following words:

[rupi]       ‘ruby’            [mul]               ‘water’

[kiri]      ‘road’              [pal]                 ‘big’

[saram]   ‘person’         [soul]/[seul]     ‘Seoul’

[irumi]   ‘name              [ilkop]              ‘seven’

[ratio]     ‘radio’             [ipalsa]                        ‘barber’

Are [r] and [l] two different phonemes or are they allophones of the same phoneme? State your reasons.

Question B

Consider the distribution of [p] and [pʰ] in the following words. Are they two different phonemes or are they allophones of the same phoneme? State your reasons.

spat [sp&t]                  pat [pʰ&t]                    lap [l&p]

spool [spu:l]               pool [pʰu:l]                 stop [stQp]

speak [spi:k]               peak [pʰi:k]                 steep [sti:p]

7. Analyze the syllable structure of the words: spy, apple, delight, convict.

WordNumber of syllablesFirst syllableSecond syllable
  OnsetRhymeOnsetRhyme
   NucleusCoda nucleuscoda
spy       
apple       
delight       
convict       

8. What is Received Pronunciation in English? What is the difference between an accent and a dialect? Give examples to illustrate the points you make.

Dẫn nhập NA – AV – Phonetics & Phonology – Khoa Anh chuyên ngành- Mã đề 101

Đề thi kết thúc học phần Dẫn nhập ngữ âm - Âm vị học

Question I. Write the phonetic symbol for that sound between the brackets below the appropriate drawing.

Instruction: For each drawing presented, there is only one consonant sound of English that could be produced by a vocal tract positioned as shown; you are to figure out which consonant sound is represented (either by referring to the descriptions of different sounds or by experimenting with your own vocal tract-some of each is recommended). Be sure that you take into account the voicing, manner, and place of articulation of each sound. Note that voicing is shown by two wavy or bumpy lines (representing vocal fold vibration) where the larynx would be, whereas voiceless sounds are represented by two lines shaped like an ellipse at the larynx level, indicating an open glottis. Take care also to note whether the air passage to the nasal cavity is open or closed (i.e., if the velum is lowered or raised).

Human Speech Organs
Mã đề 101

Question II. Write a summary of PHONOLOGY. Your summary should include the following points:

  • the domain of phonology
  • the basic elements used to make up the phonological patterns
  • the differences between the phoneme and the allophone
  • the internal structure of a syllable

Dẫn nhập NA – AV – Phonetics & Phonology – Khoa Anh chuyên ngành- Mã đề 102

Mã đề 102

Question I. Write the phonetic symbol for that sound between the brackets below the appropriate drawing.

Instruction: For each drawing presented, there is only one consonant sound of English that could be produced by a vocal tract positioned as shown; you are to figure out which consonant sound is represented (either by referring to the descriptions of different sounds or by experimenting with your own vocal tract-some of each is recommended). Be sure that you take into account the voicing, manner, and place of articulation of each sound. Note that voicing is shown by two wavy or bumpy lines (representing vocal fold vibration) where the larynx would be, whereas voiceless sounds are represented by two lines shaped like an ellipse at the larynx level, indicating an open glottis. Take care also to note whether the air passage to the nasal cavity is open or closed (i.e., if the velum is lowered or raised).

Human Speech Organs Đề 102
Mã đề 102

Question II. Write a summary of PHONOLOGY. Your summary should include the following points:

  • the domain of phonology
  • the basic elements used to make up the phonological patterns
  • the differences between the phoneme and the allophone
  • the internal structure of a syllable

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